Wednesday, February 1, 2023

How Do Banks Make Money

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Tip #: Dont Overspend

How Banks Create Money

A good way to never get charged overdraft or NSF fees is to not overspend. Try to live within your means and dont spend more money than you actually have. Build up an emergency fund so that you wont need to overdraw your account or take out a loan if the unexpected happens. Balanced money management and preparation are the key to preserving your financial wellbeing.

Money And Banksbenefits And Dangers

Money and banks are marvelous social inventions that help a modern economy to function. Compared with the alternative of barter, money makes market exchanges vastly easier in goods, labor, and financial markets. Banking makes money still more effective in facilitating exchanges in goods and labor markets. Moreover, the process of banks making loans in financial capital markets is intimately tied to the creation of money.

But the extraordinary economic gains that are possible through money and banking also suggest some possible corresponding dangers. If banks are not working well, it sets off a decline in convenience and safety of transactions throughout the economy. If the banks are under financial stress, because of a widespread decline in the value of their assets, loans may become far less available, which can deal a crushing blow to sectors of the economy that depend on borrowed money like business investment, home construction, and car manufacturing. The Great Recession of 20082009 illustrated this pattern.

Defining Net Interest Margin

The above-stated ways a bank makes money and pays customers for the use of their money is known as net interest margin. When everyday customers make bank deposits, the institution uses this money to fund loans with annual percentage rates tied to them.;

The money made off of these loans is one of the primary funding methods traditional banks use to keep the lights on and made additional income to lend to other borrowers.

Some of this money is income for the bank, and some of it is paid back to the bank customers in the form of interest payments to their savings accounts. To simplify this example, the difference between the money banks make from interest and the interest they pay out to customers is known as the net interest margin.;

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Tip #: Take Advantage Of Online Services

Most banks have online banking services that allow you to access your accounts remotely. Take advantage of these services by signing up for an online account or logging into your banks mobile app. Be careful to not share your login details with others and set up appropriate security measures, like using a strong password or enabling security questions.

How Commercial Banks Work

How much money do banks make on deposits

Commercial banks provide basic banking services to the general publicto both individual consumers and small to mid-sized businesses. As mentioned above, these services include checking and savings accounts, loans and mortgages, basic investment services such as CDs, as well as other services such as safe deposit boxes.

Banks make money from service charges and fees. These fees vary based on the products, ranging from account fees charges), safe deposit box fees, and late fees. Many loan products also contain fees in addition to interest charges. Banks also earn money from interest they earn by lending out money to other clients. The funds they lend comes from customer deposits. However, the interest rate paid by the bank on the money they borrow is less than the rate charged on the money they lend. For instance, a bank may offer savings account customers an annual interest rate of 0.25%, while charging mortgage clients 5.75% in interest annually.

A growing number of commercial banks operate exclusively online, where all transactions with the commercial bank must be made electronically.

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What Does A Bank Do With My Money

If youve read our guide to banking, youll hopefully now know that a bank account isnt just a more convenient and secure version of stashing money under your mattress.

But although we use our bank accounts every day, how a bank actually works can be a bit of a mystery! Weve pulled back the curtain to find out exactly whats going on back there

Fee or Free?

There are some bank accounts that charge a monthly fee in return, you might get travel insurance, or cashback, or a better rate of interest. But for most of us, our accounts dont cost anything up front.

This might seem obvious. After all, its your money in there, why should you pay to get at it?! But it hasnt always been this way free banking only arrived in the UK in the 1970s, and in many other countries its common to pay for cash withdrawals or pay a monthly fee.

Alright then, what does my account cost the bank?

When you think about it, a bank account is a service the bank provides. And it costs money to provide that service. You might get:

If you use your overdraft and credit card carefully, you could easily never pay the bank anything despite using those services for years!

And where does that money go?

If youve got money in your account, its not in a box marked Joe Bloggs waiting for you any time you need to take out a tenner.It makes part of a pool of money, along with every other customers current or savings account deposits.

So how do they make money?

Whats next?

Commercial Banks Vs Investment Banks

Both commercial and investment banks provide important services and play key roles in the economy. These two branches of the banking industry were generally kept separate from one another, thanks to the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933, which was passed during the Great Depression. It was repealed by the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999.

While commercial banks have traditionally provided services to individuals and businesses, investment banking offers banking services to large companies and institutional investors. They act as financial intermediaries, providing their clients with underwriting services, merger and acquisition strategies, corporate reorganization services, and other types of brokerage services for institutional and high-net-worth individuals .

While commercial banking clients include individual consumers and small businesses, investment banking clients range from governments, hedge funds, other financial institutions, pension funds, and large companies.

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Is The Model Of Offering Every Service For Free Sustainable

The popularity of emerging challenger banks is increasing rapidly. Revolut, Monzo and Starling, to name just a few, have all developed a huge customer base in a short period of time.

Historically, in the world of startups, the main priority has been customer acquisition rather than profit. Luckily, FinTechs are generally able to maintain a lower cost-to-serve their users compared to traditional banks, generally by focussing on a digital-first proposition with no branches. However, now that they continue to onboard a growing number of customers, challenger banks now need to turn their attention to generating revenue in order to succeed.

How Fintechs & Challenger Banks Make Money

How Do Investment Banks Make Money?

Foreign Exchange

Foreign exchange services and international transfers are a profitable area for banks and FinTechs. While the exchange rates offered tend to be more attractive and competitive, compared to traditional banks at least, they tend to include a very small markup fee on the exchange rate in order to cover costs at the minimum.;


Interchange fees are another way to generate income. For example, whenever you pay using your card, the company will receive a small revenue share on each transaction from the card scheme Mastercard or Visa.

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What Is A Commercial Bank

The term commercial bank refers to a financial institution that accepts deposits, offers checking account services, makes various loans, and offers basic financial products like certificates of deposit and savings accounts to individuals and small businesses. A commercial bank is where most people do their banking.

Commercial banks make money by providing and earning interest from loans such as mortgages, auto loans, business loans, and personal loans. Customer deposits provide banks with the capital to make these loans.

Tip #: Set Up Automatic Notifications And Payments

Human error can result in costly bank fees. You can use your app or online bank platform to automate loan payments, get notified when a direct deposit is made to your account, and set alerts for when your balance dips below a specific amount or falls into overdraft. Let these processes do the work for you and never spend another cent on bank fees again.

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Money Creation By A Single Bank

Banks and money are intertwined. It is not just that most money is in the form of bank accounts. The banking system can literally create money through the process of making loans. Lets see how.

Start with a hypothetical bank called Singleton Bank. The bank has $10 million in deposits. The T-account balance sheet for Singleton Bank, when it holds all of the deposits in its vaults, is shown in Figure;1. At this stage, Singleton Bank is simply storing money for depositors; it is not;using these deposits to make loans, so it cannot pay its depositors interest either.

Figure 1. Singleton Banks Balance Sheet: Receives $10 million in Deposits.

Singleton Bank is required by the Federal Reserve to keep 10% of total deposits, or; $1 million, on reserve to cover withdrawals. It will loan out the remaining $9 million. By loaning out the $9 million and charging interest, it will be able to make interest payments to depositors and earn interest income for Singleton Bank and make interest payments to depositors . Instead of becoming just a storage place for deposits, Singleton Bank can become a financial intermediary between savers and borrowers.

This change in business plan alters Singleton Banks balance sheet, as shown in Figure 2. Singletons assets have changed; it now has $1 million in reserves and a loan to Hanks Auto Supply of $9 million. The bank still has $10 million in deposits.

Figure 2. Singleton Banks Balance Sheet: 10% Reserves, One Round of Loans

Cautions About The Money Multiplier

How Does A Bank Make Money On Mortgages

The money multiplier will depend on the proportion of reserves that banks are required to hold by the Federal Reserve Bank. Additionally, a bank can also choose to hold extra reserves. Banks may decide to vary how much they hold in reserves for two reasons: macroeconomic conditions and government rules. When an economy is in recession, banks are likely to hold a higher proportion of reserves because they fear that loans are less likely to be repaid when the economy is slow. The Federal Reserve may also raise or lower the required reserves held by banks as a policy move to affect the quantity of money in an economy, as we will discuss in more depth in the module on monetary policy.

The process of how banks create money shows how the quantity of money in an economy is closely linked to the quantity of lending or credit in the economy. Indeed, all of the money in the economy, except for the original reserves, is a result of bank loans that are re-deposited and loaned out, again, and again.

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What Do Banks Invest In To Make Money

Now answering the big questions

  • How do banks make money and what do they invest in?
  • Can you invest in these assets to earn higher interest rates?

Banks invest in debt, and money market instruments to keep the money safe and maintain liquidity while also earning higher interest rates of about 9-10% .

If you know how to invest in Mutual funds, you can also invest your money in these debt and money market mutual instruments and earn similar interest rates with minimal risks.;

Here are a couple of debt and money market mutual funs that I personally invest in:

  • IDFC Government Securities Fund;
  • HDFC Short Term Debt Fund
  • Corporate Bonds As and when theyre available for investments

You can only stick to the mutual funds if you do not want to manage the individual bonds manually.

Types Of Bank Accounts

Consumers usually view banks as places to keep money or as places to go to borrow money. The types of accounts you can have with a bank may include:

A checking account allows you to deposit money, pay bills and make purchases by writing checks or using your debit card. Processing transactions is another important job for banks.

When you swipe your debit card or use your ATM card to make a withdrawal, that transaction has to be approved by your bank before it can be processed. Banks also make it possible to make electronic Automated Clearing House transfers;or wire transfers between individuals, businesses and financial institutions.

Savings accounts, CD accounts and money market accounts are all options for saving money. These accounts can pay interest to savers, though they each work differently.

Savings accounts, for example, allow you to set aside money you dont need to spend while keeping it accessible. Depending on the bank, you may be able to access your money at a branch, ATM or online.

CD accounts are time deposits that pay interest over a set period. Common CD terms range from 30 days to 60 months. But its possible to find CDs with terms as long as 10 or 20 years. Generally, the longer the term, the higher the interest rate you can earn. Banks can charge a penalty for withdrawing money from a CD before it reaches its maturity date.

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It All Starts With A Deposit

This is the story of how banks make money on savings accounts.

Most stories start with the hero meeting the heroine, but in this story, the first thing that happens is that you, as an honest hard-working citizen, deposits their money into a bank that you trust.

Very few people switch banks once they’ve decided on one. There’s a considerable amount of loyalty in banking, with most people staying an average of 12 years with their banks.

When you got your first job, you might have decided that it was time for you to get your own bank account. Or your parents decided that for you. Either way, you got an account at the same bank as your parents. Why make it more complicated?

And from then on, you started to deposit smaller and then larger amounts of cash into that account. Overtime you then open up 401ks, mutual funds, stocks, and other accounts with said bank.

How does a bank make money from these deposits? As you will see below, it’s through lending your money out.

How Credit Unions Work

How do banks make money? – The History of Money (7/10)

Because credit unions are tax-exempt organizations, and customers own them, credit unions can sometimes pursue less profit than traditional banks. They might pay more interest, charge less interest on loans, and invest more conservatively.

Some credit unions pay interest and charge fees similar to what youd find at a typical bank, so the different structure is just a technicality.

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When Banks Or The Federal Reserve Buy Government Securitiesfrom The Public

Transaction 7: When banks or the Federal Reserve buy government securities from the public, they create money in much the same way as a loan does . Wahoo bank buys $50,000 of bonds from a securities dealer. The dealer’s checkable deposits rise by $50,000. This increases the money supply in same way as the bank making the loan to Gristly.

Likewise, when banks or the Federal Reserve sell government securities to the public, they decrease supply of money like a loan repayment does.


I. Learning objectives – In this chapter students will learn:

A. Why the U.S. banking system is called a “fractional reserve” system.

B. The distinction between a bank’s actual reserves and its required reserves.

C. How a bank can create money through granting loans.

D. About the multiple expansion of loans and money by the entire banking system.

E. What the monetary multiplier is and how to calculate it.

II. Introduction: Although we are fascinated by large sums ofcurrency, people use checkable deposits for most transactions.

A. Most transaction accounts are “created” as a result of loans from banks or thrifts.

B. This chapter demonstrates the money creating abilities of a single bank or thrift and then looks at that of the system as a whole.

C. The term depository institution refers to banks and thrift institutions, but in this chapter the term bank will be often used generically to apply to all depository institutions.

IV. A Single Commercial Bank

How Do Investment Bankers Make Money

Investment banks charge a commission from both the founders and the investors on the full amount of investment. The service charges of the investment banks add up to a couple hundred thousand dollars per deal.;

But how do investment bankers make money and why are investment bankers so rich?;

For each deal thats searched and executed by an investment banker, the banker earn a hefty commission for themselves. This commission can range from 1% to 5% of the investment value.;

For a banker who facilitates a $10 million dollar deal, a 1% commission means a $100,000 in pocket for the investment banker.;

But these are very conservative estimates and thats a very good reason why investment bankers are seen driving around in really expensive cars! Damn I really want to become an investment banker now

This brings us to the last part of understanding how banks make money. The question is, how do banks make a profit?

If youve read through the entire article, you must have a perfect picture in mind of how banks are making money for their operations and for themselves.;

Heres a quick summary of the bank business model.

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