The West Bank And Gaza: A Population Profile
The West Bank and Gaza are unique entities in todays world. Although parts of the two areas consist of a series of autonomous, Palestinian-governed regions, Israel and Israeli forces surround them. The West Bank is approximately the size of Delaware while Gaza is approximately twice the size of Washington, D.C.
The Road To Annexation
After the invasion, Jordan began making moves to perpetuate the Jordanian occupation over the Arab part of Palestine. King Abdullah appointed governors on his behalf in the Arab cities of Ramallah, Hebron, Nablus, Bethlehem, Ramla and the Arab controlled part of Jerusalem, that were captured by Legion in the invasion. These governors were mostly Palestinians , and the Jordanians described them as “military” governors, so that it would not anger the other Arab states, which opposed Jordan’s plans to incorporate the Arab part of Palestine into the kingdom. The king made other smaller moves towards the annexation of the West Bank: He ordered Palestinian policemen to wear the uniforms of the Jordanian police and its symbols; he instituted the use of Jordanian postage stamps instead of the British ones; Palestinian municipalities were not allowed to collect taxes and issue licenses; and the radio of Ramallah called the locals to disobey the instructions of pro-Husseini officials and obey those of the Jordanian-backed governors.
Loss Of Cultural Property
Albert Glock argued that Israel is responsible for the disappearance of significant parts of the Palestinian cultural patrimony, by confiscating Arab cultural resources. In 1967 it appropriated the Palestine Archaeological Museum and its library in East Jerusalem. Often these losses are personal, as when homes are ransacked and looted of their valuables. The journalist Hamdi Faraj, jailed for endangering public order, had his 500-volume library confiscated, including copies of the Bible and Qur’an and, when he applied for their restitution, was told all the books had been accidentally burnt.The Israeli occupation has wrought a profound change in Palestinian identity, which clings to a sense of a “paradise lost” before the changes brought out by the 1967 conquest.
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Israels Annexation Of The Jordan Valley
Netanyahus July 1 expected annexation of the Jordan Valley is significant for a number of reasons:
1. Would completely surround the Palestinians
The West Banks only international border is with Jordan. If Israel annexes the Jordan Valley the entire West Bank would be completely surrounded by Israel. For Palestinians there cannot be a Palestinian state without the Jordan Valley.
2. Cuts off water and agricultural resources
Israeli settlers in the Jordan Valley receive 18 times more water on average than Palestinian residents in the West Bank. Most Palestinian farmers are not connected to the water grid and have to rely on buying water from tankers. Annexation would mean that Palestinians would be physically cut off from the Jordan River.;
3. Speeds up the construction of settlements
Currently, any new zoning or building in the West Bank requires the approval of Israels defence minister and prime minister. This can take months or years. Following annexation, Israel would consider the Jordan Valley part of its territory and so any construction would become a local matter.;
According to a map presented by Netanyahu in 2019, the areas to be annexed would comprise 95 percent of the Jordan Valley which makes up at least 22 percent of the West Bank.
What Would Change With Annexation
Assuming it happens , the settlements and surrounding areas will become permanent parts of Israel . Reversal would require the support of a large majority of Israeli MPs, something which is very unlikely.
In practice, Israeli laws already apply to settlers, though not to Palestinians, who are subject only to Israeli military orders and Palestinian laws, so there would be little noticeable change in that respect.
One of the most significant differences annexation would likely make is in settlement construction – long one of the thorniest issues between Israel and the Palestinians.
Currently, building and zoning in the West Bank requires the approval of Israel’s defence minister and prime minister, and can take months or years. Following annexation, it would become a local matter and consequently easier for Israel to build there.
Beyond the annexed areas, the Israeli military will continue to exercise overall authority – something Palestinians say has deprived generations of their basic civil rights.
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Rivalry Between Asharya And Salafya And The 2016 Sunni Conferences
Since the second half of the 20th century, there have been fierce clashes within the Sunni camps between Asharites on the one hand and / on the other, who exclude each other from Sunnism. In Indonesia, the Asharite scholar Sirajuddin Abbas wrote several books in the 1960s in which he explicitly excluded the Ahl as-salaf from Sunnism. Among other things, he argued that there was no Salafi madhhab in the first 300 years of Islam. From this he deduced that those who called other Muslims to obey the Salafi madhhab, were promoting a madhhab which did not even exist. In his view, only the Asharites were real Sunnis. Abbas’ books served as the theological basis for anti-Salafist campaigns in in 2014. During these campaigns, various Salafist schools in Aceh were closed by the provincial government.
The accusation by some Wahhabis that the Asharites were not Sunnis was subject of a by the “Egyptian Fatwa Office” in July 2013. In its fatwa, the office rejected this accusation, affirming that the Asharites still represented the “multitude of ” , and stressed out that it they were the ones who in the past rejected the arguments of the . Anyone who declares them to be unbelieving or who doubts their orthodoxy should fear for their religion. On the same day, the fatwa office made clear in a fatwa that, according to their understanding, the Ahl as-Sunna wa-l-jama only refer to those Muslims who are Asharites or Maturidites.
Early Economic Impact Of Occupation
The early occupation set severe limits on public investment and comprehensive development programmes in the territories. British and Arab commercial banks operating in the West Bank were closed down soon after Israel assumed power there. Bank Leumi then opened nine branches, without successfully replacing the earlier system. Farmers could get loans, but Palestinian businessmen avoided taking out loans from them since they charged 9% compared to 5% interest in Jordan. Land confiscations led to rural labour seeking employment, even if mainly menial, in Israel, causing a labour scarcity in the West Bank, and their remittances were the major factor in Palestinian economic growth during the 1969-73 boom years.
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Palestinian Protesters Killed Gaza Officials Say As Us Opens Jerusalem Embassy
The western side of the city is home to Jewish Israelis and Israel’s government. It’s not really contested and would be expected to remain with Israel in any peace talks.
The eastern side including key Jewish, Muslim and Christian holy sites was captured by Israel in 1967. It’s populated by Palestinians who seek it for their capital. Israelis are increasing their numbers there and it’s highly contested.
The Green Line
Here’s a map that lays out major sections of the city. The boundaries have names like the “Green Line” and the “separation barrier,” but not “border.”
To start unraveling this, follow the Green Line. That line, sometimes straight, sometimes in squiggles or confounding loops, separates the territory that Israel and Jordan controlled when an armistice was signed ending the 1948-1949 Arab-Israeli war shortly after Israel’s creation.
Your Gifts Can Make A Difference In Gaza
Meet Bassam Nasser and hear his mission and passion for his country and the people in Gaza. With funding cuts, Bassam is even more determined to help. Youwith Bassam can make a difference as well. Watch this video and see how.
The Middle East is a land holy to Jews, Christians and Muslims, but tragically it is also a land riven by conflict that yearns for a just peace. Catholic Relief Services’ long-running work in the Holy Land is therefore guided by the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops‘ commitment to a just, sustainable, and secure peace, in accordance with the Vatican’s appeal that “the two-state solution become a reality, not remain a dream.”
CRS’ work in the Holy Land has evolved over the course of decades, but continues to focus on accompanying local partners to strengthen the economic, civic and environmental foundations for a viable Palestinian state alongside Israel, while responding to humanitarian crises whenever they arise.
CRS supports strong leadership by the U.S. government to seek a comprehensive peace agreement that ends the conflict in the Holy Land and achieves both the Palestinian goal of an independent and viable state and Israel’s goal of a secure state with recognized borders.
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Are Israels West Bank Settlements Legal Or Not
Most legal experts and the United Nations agree that Israeli settlements in the West Bank violate international law.
The 1949 Geneva Convention, which Israel signed, prohibits an occupying state from moving its own civilians into the territory it occupies. According to the International Court of Justice, the U.N.s main judicial body, the West Bank is considered occupied territory because it was not part of Israel before the Israeli army conquered it in 1967. Territorial conquest is also forbidden by international law.
The Israeli government has previously said that the Geneva Convention is not applicable to the West Bank because it only refers to a state occupying another states land. Israel considers the West Bank disputed territory, not occupied territory.
Further, Israels government has argued, even if the Geneva Convention did apply, it would only prohibit forcible population transfers, like the mass deportations carried out by Nazi Germany not the voluntarily movement of people into occupied territories.
This story is an updated version of an article originally published Nov. 25, 2019.
Ben & Jerrys To Stop Sales In West Bank East Jerusalem
MONTPELIER, Vt. Ben & Jerrys said Monday it was going to stop selling its ice cream in the Israeli-occupied West Bank and contested east Jerusalem, saying the sales in the territories sought by the Palestinians are inconsistent with our values.
The announcement was one of the strongest and highest-profile rebukes by a well-known company of Israels policy of settling its citizens on war-won lands. The settlements are widely seen by the international community as illegal and obstacles to peace.
The move by the Vermont-based ice cream company drew swift reproach from Israeli Prime Minister Naftali Bennett, a former leader of the West Bank settlement movement who called it an immoral decision and I believe that it will turn out to be a business mistake, too.
The company informed its longstanding licensee responsible for manufacturing and distributing the ice cream in Israel that it will not renew the license agreement when it expires at the end of next year, according to a statement posted on the Vermont-based companys website.
The Ben & Jerrys statement cited the concerns shared with us by our fans and trusted partners.
The company did not explicitly identify those concerns, but last month, a group called Vermonters for Justice in Palestine called on Ben & Jerrys to end complicity in Israels occupation and abuses of Palestinian human rights.
In a Monday statement, the organization said Ben & Jerrys actions did not go far enough.
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Blockade Of The Gaza Strip
The Gaza Strip has been under an Israeli sea and air blockade since 2007. Since 2008, Israel has waged three wars on the Palestinian territory, killing thousands of people, mostly civilians.
In 1948, the Gaza Strip had a population of less than 100,000 people. Today it is home to two million, 64 percent of whom are refugees.
Why Do Israelis Want To Live In The West Bank
Israelis choose to live in the West Bank for many reasons.
The popular stereotype of Jewish settlers as religious fanatics determined to reclaim the entire ancient homeland they believe was given to Jews by God is not quite accurate. Its estimated that only about a quarter of West Bank settlers live there out of ideological conviction.
Still, these fervent settlers are a vocal and highly visible minority. They generally live in smaller settlements, located deep inside the West Bank.
They see their presence as a means of ensuring permanent Jewish control over the area, which they call by the biblical names Judea and Samaria. These settlers believe that by living in the West Bank they are serving Gods will and helping to bring about the long-awaited coming of the Messiah.
Most Jewish settlers in the West Bank, however, live there for economic reasons. Israeli government investment and incentives aimed at encouraging Jews to settle there have made the cost of living lower than inside Israel.
Many Jews in the West Bank are secular, particularly those who emigrated from the former Soviet Union since the early 1990s.
Others, like the growing number of ultra-Orthodox Jews living in the West Bank, may believe that God gave the West Bank to Israel but they move there primarily because they can find affordable housing and a better quality of life.
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Early Years Of The State Of Israel
Israel as a member of the UN by majority vote on 11 May 1949. An Israeli-Jordanian attempt at negotiating a peace agreement broke down after the , fearful of the Egyptian reaction to such a treaty, expressed their opposition to the . In the early years of the state, the movement led by Prime Minister dominated . The , or collective farming communities, played a pivotal role in establishing the new state.
Immigration to Israel during the late 1940s and early 1950s was aided by the Israeli Immigration Department and the non-government sponsored which organized illegal and clandestine immigration. Both groups facilitated regular immigration logistics like arranging transportation, but the latter also engaged in clandestine operations in countries, particularly in the Middle East and Eastern Europe, where the lives of Jews were believed to be in danger and exit from those places was difficult. Mossad LeAliyah Bet was disbanded in 1953. The immigration was in accordance with the . The immigrants came for differing reasons: some held Zionist beliefs or came for the promise of a better life in Israel, while others moved to escape persecution or were expelled.
Why Is Jerusalem Important To Israel And Palestinians
Israel views Jerusalem as its unified, eternal capital. It had captured east Jerusalem, which includes the Old City, in the 1967 Mideast war, along with the West Bank and Gaza. Palestinians want those territories for their future state, with east Jerusalem serving as their eventual capital. But Israel annexed the eastern part of the city in a move not recognized internationally.
The fate of east Jerusalem has been one of the thorniest issues in the peace process, which ground to a halt more than a decade ago.
Israelis on Monday were set to mark Jerusalem Day, a national holiday celebrating the annexation. In past years, thousands of Israelis mainly religious nationalists have marched through the Old City, including the densely populated Muslim Quarter, in a display considered provocative by many Palestinians.
In recent days, hard-line Israelis have staged other events in east Jerusalem, leading to scattered, violent altercations with Palestinians.
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Why Do Israel And Hamas Fight
Founded in Gaza Strip in 1987, the Palestinian militant group aimed to be a resistance to what they see as Israel’s occupation of three territories that Palestinians want to form their future state: Gaza, the West Bank and east Jerusalem.;
Hamas gained control of Gaza by first winning elections in 2006 and then through clashes with the Palestine Authority. After its takeover of the coastal strip, Israel and Egypt imposed a crippling blockade. Israel says it’s needed to keep Hamas and other militant groups from importing arms. Rights groups say the blockade is a form of collective punishment.
After Hamas launched two Palestinian intifadas, or uprisings, Israel withdrew its troops and Jewish settlements from Gaza;in 2015.
Hamas, which still rules Gaza, is now calling for a new intifada. Gaza militants have fired rockets and balloons with incendiary devices attached to them in support of the protesters as an informal cease-fire with Israel has started to fray. Israel retaliated with hundreds of Israeli strikes from sea, land and air.
It’s the fourth round of major conflict between Israel and Hamas since 2008, with the tiny enclave’s more than 2 million Palestinian residents bearing the brunt of the deaths and the destruction.
Hamas and Israel have fought three wars and several smaller battles. The worst so far was the 2014 war, which lasted for 50 days and killed some 2,200 Palestinians, more than half of them civilians. Seventy-three people were killed on the Israeli side.
Zionism And British Mandate
Since the existence of the earliest , many Jews have aspired to to “Zion” and the “Land of Israel”, though the amount of effort that should be spent towards such an aim was a matter of dispute. The hopes and yearnings of Jews living in exile are an important theme of the Jewish belief system. After the Jews were in 1492, some communities settled in Palestine. During the 16th century, Jewish communities struck roots in the , , , and and in 1697, Rabbi Yehuda Hachasid led a group of 1,500 Jews to Jerusalem. In the second half of the 18th century, Eastern European of , known as the , settled in Palestine.
“Therefore I believe that a wonderous generation of Jews will spring into existence. The Maccabaeans will rise again. Let me repeat once more my opening words: The Jews wish to have a State, and they shall have one. We shall live at last as free men on our own soil, and die peacefully in our own home. The world will be freed by our liberty, enriched by our wealth, magnified by our greatness. And whatever we attempt there to accomplish for our own welfare will react with beneficent force for the good of humanity.”
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