Why Is Ownership Of The West Bank So Contested
In May 1967, not a single Israeli lived in the West Bank, a hilly region about the size of Delaware. It was home to roughly a million Palestinians, who had been living under contested Jordanian control for two decades.
Israel conquered the West Bank during the Six-Day War in June 1967. Soon afterwards, Israeli civilians began moving to the region, initially to areas like Kfar Etzion that had been home to Jewish communities before Israels founding in 1948.
In 1968, a rabbi named Moshe Levinger and a small group of followers who embraced a messianic version of religious Zionism moved into the ancient city of Hebron, in the heartland of the West Bank. Hebron is a holy city for Jews because it is believed to be the burial place of the Jewish patriarchs and matriarchs Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Sarah, Rebecca and Leah.
The population of Israelis living in the West Bank has mushroomed over the years. An estimated 430,000 Israeli Jews now live in 132 officially recognized settlements and in 121 unofficial outposts that require, but havent yet received, government approval. Constituting about 15% of the West Banks total population, these settlers live in their own communities, separate from the areas approximately 3 million Palestinian residents.
Where Things Stand Now
Both the West Bank and Gaza Strip are home to a large number of Palestinian populations.
Following the Oslo Accords between the Israeli government and the Palestine Liberation Organization during the 1990s, part of the West Bank came under the control of the Palestinian Authority. With varying levels of autonomy, the Palestinian Authority controls close to 40 per cent of West Bank today, while the rest is controlled by Israel.
It is in West Bank that 160-odd Israeli settlements and outposts now exist.
The Gaza Strip, densely populated with Palestinians, had been under Israeli occupation since 1967, until Israel decided to disengage from the territory in 2005. A couple of years later in 2007, Hamas, an anti-Israel military group, took over Gaza Strip. The militia group is often involved in violent clashes with the Israeli Defence Forces.
While Palestine has staked claim to both territories West Bank and Gaza Strip Israels objective has been to keep expanding Jewish settlements in these regions. There are approximately 2 million Palestinians in the Gaza Strip and 3 million in the West Bank, according to the Palestinian Authoritys Population Registry.
The Israeli Civil Administration has, nevertheless, accused the Palestinian registry of inflating these figures.
Subscribe to our channels on & Telegram
Why news media is in crisis & How you can fix it
India needs free, fair, non-hyphenated and questioning journalism even more as it faces multiple crises.
The World Bank In West Bank And Gaza
2020 has been a tumultuous year for the Palestinian economy, which is suffering the economic fallout of the COVID-19 outbreak, as well as a political standoff that has made it difficult for the Palestinian Authority to collect tax revenue.
Recommended Reading: How To Send Money Zelle Chase
Distinction Between Jews As A People And Judaism
According to , the underlying distinction between religion and ethnicity is foreign to Judaism itself, and is one form of the dualism between spirit and flesh that has its origin in philosophy and that permeated . Consequently, in his view, Judaism does not fit easily into conventional Western categories, such as religion, ethnicity, or culture. Boyarin suggests that this in part reflects the fact that much of Judaism’s more than 3,000-year history predates the rise of Western culture and occurred outside the West . During this time, Jews experienced slavery, anarchic and theocratic self-government, conquest, occupation, and exile. In the Jewish diaspora, they were in contact with, and influenced by, ancient Egyptian, Babylonian, Persian, and Hellenic cultures, as well as modern movements such as the Enlightenment and the rise of nationalism, which would bear fruit in the form of a Jewish state in their ancient homeland, the . They also saw an elite population convert to Judaism , only to disappear as the centers of power in the lands once occupied by that elite fell to the people of Rus and then the Mongols. Thus, Boyarin has argued that “Jewishness disrupts the very categories of identity, because it is not national, not genealogical, not religious, but all of these, in dialectical tension.”
In contrast to this point of view, practices such as reject the religious aspects of Judaism, while retaining certain cultural traditions.
The Enlightenment And New Religious Movements
In the late 18th century CE, Europe was swept by a group of intellectual, social and political movements known as the . The Enlightenment led to reductions in the European laws that prohibited Jews to interact with the wider secular world, thus allowing Jews access to secular education and experience. A parallel Jewish movement, or the “Jewish Enlightenment”, began, especially in Central Europe and Western Europe, in response to both the Enlightenment and these new freedoms. It placed an emphasis on integration with secular society and a pursuit of non-religious knowledge through reason. With the promise of political emancipation, many Jews saw no reason to continue to observe halakha and increasing numbers of Jews assimilated into Christian Europe. Modern religious movements of Judaism all formed in reaction to this trend.
Read Also: Editing Bank Statements
Is West Bank Part Of Israel
. Furthermore, does Israel claim the West Bank?
Officially Israel maintains that the West Bank is disputed territory. Israel asserts that since the disengagement of Israel from Gaza in 2005, Israel no longer occupies the Gaza Strip.
One may also ask, who governs the West Bank? Presently, most of the West Bank is administered by Israel though 42% of it is under varying degrees of autonomous rule by the Fatah-run Palestinian Authority. The Gaza Strip is currently under the control of Hamas.
In this way, what country is the West Bank?
Why is Israel in the West Bank?
Israel has cited several reasons for retaining the West Bank within its ambit: a claim based on the notion of historic rights to this as a homeland as affirmed in the Balfour Declaration security grounds, internal and external and the deep symbolic value for Jews of the area occupied.
High And Late Middle Ages
In the West, from the 11th century onward, some older cathedral schools . Previously, higher education had been the domain of Christian or , led by and . Evidence of such schools dates back to the 6th century CE. These new universities expanded the curriculum to include academic programs for clerics, lawyers, civil servants, and physicians. The university is generally regarded as an institution that has its origin in the setting.
Accompanying the rise of the “new towns” throughout Europe, were founded, bringing the out of the monastery and into the new urban setting. The two principal mendicant movements were the and the , founded by and , respectively. Both orders made significant contributions to the development of the great universities of Europe. Another new order was the , whose large isolated monasteries spearheaded the settlement of former wilderness areas. In this period, church building and ecclesiastical architecture reached new heights, culminating in the orders of and and the building of the great European cathedrals.
Beginning around 1184, following the crusade against heresy, various institutions, broadly referred to as the , were established with the aim of suppressing and securing religious and doctrinal unity within Christianity through and prosecution.
Read Also: Linking Bank Account To Paypal Safe
What Is The Global Response To Israel’s Plan
The Palestinians are calling for international pressure to thwart Mr Netanyahu’s plans, and their prime minister has said they could declare their own independent state on almost all of the West Bank if Israel annexes land there.
The UN’s Middle East envoy has warned that Israeli annexation and Palestinian counter-steps “would dramatically shift local dynamics and most likely trigger conflict and instability in the occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip“. However, the US is likely to block any attempts to pass resolutions at the UN Security Council condemning Israel.
Jordan, one of only two Arab states to have signed peace treaties with Israel, has said it would be forced to review its relations with Israel if annexation goes ahead. But while the Arab world has sharply criticised Israel’s plans, declarations of solidarity with the Palestinians may be as far as Arab states – especially those in the Gulf that have unofficial relations with Israel – will go.
The EU – Israel’s biggest trading partner – says it will use diplomatic means to “discourage” Israel from carrying out its plans. Although some member states have called for tougher action, including possible sanctions, there appears little support for such a move at the moment.
The Palestinian Territories Are Divided Into Three Areas:
- Areas A Areas under the full control of the Palestinian Authority which consists of 18% of the total area of the West Bank.
- Areas B Areas in which the responsibility for public order lies with the Palestinian Authority. Israel has full control over security matters. Areas B consist of 18.3% of the total area of the West Bank.
- Areas C Areas under the full control of the Israeli government, constituting 61% of the total area of the West Bank.
Don’t Miss: Td Overdraft Policy
Arrests And Administrative Detention
An estimated 650,000 Palestinians were detained by Israel from 1967 to 2005, one in three of all Palestinians in the first two decades alone. The military court system, regarded as the institutional centerpiece of the occupation, treats Palestinians as “foreign civilians” and is presided over by Jewish Israeli judges drew on prior British Mandatory law, where its application to Jewish activists was vigorously protested by the yishuv representatives. Four provisions entail long detention of suspects incommunicado without access to a lawyer coercive interrogation to obtain evidence and the use of “secret evidence”. Over this period, tens of thousands have been subject to administrative detention, whose rationale is to incarcerate suspects who, in conventional criminal law, might not be convictable. Taisir al-Arouri, a Bir Zeit University professor of Mathematics, was arrested at night on 21 April 1974 and released on 18 January 1978, after suffering 45 months of imprisonment without trial or charges being laid, only after Amnesty International issued a public protest.
It was considered by one scholar in 1978 as “an aberration of criminal justice” of a provisory nature. In 2017 Amnesty International, noted that “hundreds of Palestinians, including children, civil society leaders and NGO workers were regularly under administrative detention”, and regards some, such as Khalida Jarrar and Ahmad Qatamesh, as prisoners of conscience.
The West Bank Is The Largest Part
The West Bank is the largest part of the territory that is hoped to form the Palestinian state, along with East Jerusalem and the Gaza Strip. The Palestinians hope this state will be achieved within the framework of the two-state negotiations negotiated by the Palestine Liberation Organization 1991.
Read Also: Can I Overdraft My Td Bank Account
Referencesisbn Links Support Nwe Through Referral Fees
- Albin, Cecilia. 2001. Justice and fairness in international negotiation. Cambridge studies in international relations, 74. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521793289
- Bamberger, David. 1985. A young person’s history of Israel. New York, NY: Behrman House. ISBN 0874413931
- Gibney, Mark and Frankowski, Stanislaw . Judicial Protection of Human Rights. Praeger/Greenwood. ISBN 0275960110
- Playfair, Emma, Ed. 1992. International Law and the Administration of Occupied Territories. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198252978
- Hoyland, Robert G. 2001. Arabia and the Arabs: from the Bronze Age to the coming of Islam. London New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415195349
Are Israels West Bank Settlements Legal Or Not
The 1949 Geneva Convention, which Israel signed, prohibits an occupying state from moving its own civilians into the territory it occupies. According to the International Court of Justice, the U.N.s main judicial body, the West Bank is considered occupied territory because it was not part of Israel before the Israeli army conquered it in 1967. Territorial conquest is also forbidden by international law.
The Israeli government has previously said that the Geneva Convention is not applicable to the West Bank because it only refers to a state occupying another states land. Israel considers the West Bank disputed territory, not occupied territory.
Further, Israels government has argued, even if the Geneva Convention did apply, it would only prohibit forcible population transfers, like the mass deportations carried out by Nazi Germany not the voluntarily movement of people into occupied territories.
This story is an updated version of an article originally published Nov. 25, 2019.
Recommended Reading: What Banks Sell Silver Bars
Synagogues And Religious Buildings
Synagogues are Jewish houses of prayer and study. They usually contain separate rooms for prayer , smaller rooms for study, and often an area for community or educational use. There is no set blueprint for synagogues and the architectural shapes and interior designs of synagogues vary greatly. The Reform movement mostly refer to their synagogues as temples. Some traditional features of a synagogue are:
- The where the scrolls are kept outside or inside the ark doors)
- The elevated reader’s platform , where the Torah is read
- The , a continually lit lamp or lantern used as a reminder of the constantly lit of the
- The pulpit, or amud, a lectern facing the Ark where the or prayer leader stands while praying.
In addition to synagogues, other buildings of significance in Judaism include , or institutions of Jewish learning, and , which are ritual baths.
What Is The West Bank
Fox News national security and foreign policy expert Walid Phares on President Trumps Middle East peace plan.
The West Bank is a contentious territory, often the focus of any potential peace deal between Israelis and Palestinians. It consists of 2,000 square miles of land that was seized by Isreal during the 1967 Mideast war, or “Six-Day War,” when the country defeated the combined forces of Egypt, Syria, and Jordan.
During the Six-Day War, Israel also captured the Gaza strip, the Golan Heights, the Sinai peninsula, and Jerusalem. Jordan had conquered and annexed the West Bank in 1948 and Jewish people felt they were being deprived access to their holiest prayer site, the Western Wall, in Jerusalem.
After the war, Israel took control of the Holy Basin, which includes the Temple Mount, the Western Wall, and the entire West Bank.
The territory is still a point of contention due to a large number of Palestinians who live there and hope to see the land become a part of their future state.
The West Bank is currently home to about 2.8 million Palestinian Arabs and 400,000 Jewish residents in 127 communities commonly referred to as settlements. When Israel took control of the land in 1967 it allowed Jewish people to move in, but Palestinians consider the West Bank illegally occupied Palestinian land.
About 6,000 new Israeli settlement homes have been announced since President Trump’s inauguration. In late January, Netanyahu said there would be a delay in the annexation process.
Recommended Reading: Wells Fargo Expresssend Review
Israel Annexation: What Is The West Bank
Concerns have been expressed around the world over plans by Israelâs prime minister to annex parts of the West Bank.
Benjamin Netanyahu could make an announcement as early as 1 July â but what is the West Bank, and what might happen?
BBC’s diplomatic correspondent, Paul Adams, explains whatâs at stake.
Editing and production: Rachael Thorn
Graphic design: Terry Saunders
- Up Next2:35
The West Bank In 1967
Israel’s economy was 10 times larger than the West Bank’s on the eve of the occupation but had experienced two years of recession. The West Bank’s population stood between 585,500 and 803,600 and, during the Jordanian rule accounted for 40% of Jordan’s GNP, with an annual growth rate of 6-8%. Ownership of land was generally collective, and the 19th century Ottoman land code prevailed, which classified land as either waqf, mülk, miri, matruke, and mawat the last three being formally state land, though Jordan never considered these last three as state property, and only a very small proportion of the West Bank was registered as such under Jordanian rule.
Education was a high priority, The enrolment rate averaged an annual increase of 7% over the prior decade, and by 1966, Palestinian youth had the highest enrolment rate of all Arab countries. Palestinians in the West Bank had a favourable educational basis compared to Israeli Arabs and Jordanian youth, due to the preexisting provisions of the Jordanian school system which provided 12 years of free and compulsory education. with some 44.6% of West Bank teenagers in the 1517 age group participating in some form of secondary schooling.
Don’t Miss: Td Overdraft
Israel Searches For Attackers Who Killed 3 In Mass Stabbing
JERUSALEM Israeli security forces took part in a massive manhunt Friday for two Palestinians suspected of carrying out a stabbing rampage near Tel Aviv that left three Israelis dead.
The stabbing on Thursday, Israels Independence Day, was the latest in a series of deadly assaults deep inside the country in recent weeks. It came as Israeli-Palestinian tensions were already heightened by violence at a major holy site in Jerusalem sacred to Jews and Muslims.
Police said they were searching for two suspects, 19 and 20 years old, from the town of Jenin in the occupied West Bank, which has re-emerged as a militant bastion in the latest wave of violence the worst Israel has seen in years. Several attackers have come from in or around Jenin, and Israeli forces have launched arrest raids that have ignited gunbattles there.
We will get our hands on the terrorists and their supportive environment, and they will pay the price, Israeli Prime Minister Naftali Bennett said after huddling with senior security officials late Thursday. Authorities said the attackers fled in a vehicle.